Copyright 1999, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013
These pregame instructions were originally written in 1999, and then were
updated in 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, and now in 2015 after
recent International Football Association Board decisions and advisories from
FIFA and USSF. Here now is the latest revision to include new instructions
from FIFA and USSF plus ďtweaksĒ based on my experiences over the past few years.
As I stated in the original preamble, adapt these instructions to your own
style and temperament. Donít try to repeat verbatim what you read here.
Instead, think about the points I make, reflect on how I ask assistant referees
to deal with them, and then create your own pre-game discussion to meet the needs
of your games and the experience levels of your assistant referees.
This is particularly important when youíre working with very young or
inexperienced ARs. In their entirety these pregame instructions will utterly
overwhelm a young AR whoís probably still trying to get comfortable switching
the flag from hand to hand.
But assuming youíre working with ARs who have some reasonable comfort
level on the touchline, this should cover just about everything.
And so with that introduction, here goes.
You'll help me most by focusing your attention inside the lines for the entire
90 minutes (or however long). Please don't turn around to see who chases the ball
when it goes into touch behind you. Don't watch to see what happens to the ball when
it goes behind the goal line. Our game is between the lines, so watch the players and the field at all times.
If youíre the A/R on the bench side the only time you should look outside the
touchline is when you need to deal with substitutions, or if you have issues with
the conduct of those on the team benches. If you can manage these things quickly
without becoming distracted, thatís great. If not, call me over and I will deal with the problem.
If youíre the A/R on the spectator side your only concern outside the touchline
should be if those spectators crowd the line and make it hard for you to run or to see
past midfield to the far corner flag. If you can deal with the crowd quickly in these cases,
thatís great. If they wonít give you a clear view of the entire touchline donít get into a
hassle repeatedly asking them to move back. Call me over and I will deal with it.
Of course both of you should be aware and let me know if spectators migrate behind
the goals and create a distraction for the goalkeepers. Otherwise, forget whatís
outside the lines and, instead, focus on the players.
The players are smart, and if one of them is going to do anything nasty it will
probably happen when he thinks we're not watching. If you turn to watch the ball
behind you, that's when a player will look, see his chance, and elbow or punch or spit.
Then an opponent is lying face down on the field and I look at you with a facial
expression asking, "What happened?" If you then look back at me with eyes like a
deer caught in headlights, we're in trouble. We can't let that happen, we have to be aware,
so watch the "hot" areas of the field at all times.
If I whistle for a free kick close to you and I have to come to the spot of the
foul to deal with players or position the wall, do NOT watch me! Nothing is happening
where I am. Instead, watch the players behind me, across from you in the penalty area.
That's where the problems could happen because the players know my attention is away
from them, and they will look and see that you're watching me. Then the nasty stuff starts,
so watch the field!!
On dead balls the first thing we must do is make eye contact. If you have something
to communicate then try to tell me what's on your mind with a hand signal.
For example, pointing to a player and then pointing to your eyes will be enough to
tell me to watch him/her. Or patting your badge after Iíve whistled for a foul will
tell me that in your opinion a caution is in order.
If it's a more serious matter that requires discussion then motion me over.
And if I donít see you and itís really important that we deal with something now,
then shout at me. Get my attention!
Letís be certain that for a presumed foul, a throw-in, a corner kick, a goal kick, etc.,
we make eye contact before you signal with the flag. For example, if you run full speed to
the corner flag and youíre 100% certain itís a corner kick donít immediately point to the
corner. Stop a yard from the corner, come to attention, and make eye contact just in case
I happen to be pointing up the field for a foul in favor of the defense. That will help to
prevent situations where we end up pointing in opposite directions. If we make eye contact
first and I donít signal then of course Iím looking to you for assistance -- your decision
corner kick or goal kick, throw-in for the attackers or defenders, etc.
On each stoppage it's also important that you look across the field to the other AR.
Make eye contact. If there is a flag up behind my back (e.g., for substitution) then mirror it.
If I fail to look over and make eye contact after several stoppages, don't worry.
I'm not intentionally ignoring you. I've simply violated my first rule that says we must
make regular eye contact. But if I do ignore you donít let me continue!
If I fall asleep on the job, wake me up!
If I don't look at you several times then give me a shout and point to your own
eyes -- I'll get the message to pay attention.
Offside is your primary responsibility, but please remember that we have specific
instructions (new for 2015) on what must happen during play before we raise the flag.
Please do not raise the flag for a player in an offside position whoís doing nothing other
than occupying space. If a player is in an offside position but is not participating
(i.e., heís not close to the ball and will have no ďimpactĒ on play or opponents),
let him be. He can set up a barbeque and roast hotdogs for 30 minutes if he wishes,
but heís not offside until you decide heís become involved.
So Iíll be depending on you to judge when that player has interfered with play
or with an opponent, or has gained a benefit as the result of being in an offside
position when the ball was touched or played by a teammate[sic]. Wait just a second and
see what develops, especially if the ball is misplayed to her by an opponent thereby resetting offside.
Letís also be careful not to raise the flag too soon for a player in an offside
position who has the ball played into her general area, only to have the teammate[sic]
who last touched the ball run through the defense and collect her own pass.
A second or two late and accurate is better than a fast but, ultimately, inaccurate flag.
Now, if you do raise the flag (and it's not a mistake which you immediately correct)
then hold it up forever -- until I blow the whistle, or wave it down ("Thanks very much"),
or if I've gone completely asleep, until the defense takes the ball and there is no
longer a threat of attack. Of course if the ball goes over the goal line for a goal
kick or over the touch line for a throw-in in favor of the defense then you can drop the flag.
But if there is an attack in progress then never, never pull the flag down
simply because I did not see it. Stand there forever if you have to -- like
the Statue of Liberty. You're not the one who looks foolish -- I am. And that's my problem.
The defense and its coaches will certainly let me know that your flag is up.
(Boy, will they let me know!)
But we cannot allow a goal to be scored if you had the flag up and then brought
it down because I did not see it, and you decided that you had to catch up to
the attacking play. Similarly, if the ball goes into touch or over the goal line
and then comes back into the field, raise the flag and stand there forever until
I blow the whistle or until the attack breaks down and there is no longer a threat on goal.
We cannot allow the ball to go off the field, come back in, and then go into
the goal. If you've dropped the flag and I never saw it, and if I then award a
goal we'll have big problems. So keep the flag up as long as there's a threat of attack!
OK, moving onÖ
If the ball goes into the goal and comes back out, and if I did not realize it
and play continues, raise the flag to signal ball out of play and then stand there.
You have to get my attention, so do not drop the flag. A goal is a goal, and my
falling asleep does not negate that. As a last resort, shout to get my attention
-- this is a game-altering incident and we have to get it right.
If I've turned away from you and headed up field and have not heard your shout,
then the AR on the other side of the field should see your flag and should mirror it.
("Hey, dummy. Look behind you!")
The most important thing is that we get it right. My ego is not more
important than the game, so get my attention and tell me Iím wrong if Iím wrong.
Now, if the other AR does not see and mirror your flag, and if the game has had
some stoppages and restarts then at that point itís too late to award the goal.
All you can do is tell me at half time or full time and I'll have to deal with
the consequences of my inattentiveness (especially if we have an assessor at the game).
If the ball goes in the goal and in your opinion it's a good goal then follow
standard USSF procedures. But do not immediately run like crazy up the line because
if I decide it's not a goal then you have to run all the way back. So make eye
contact first! (RememberÖ eye contact at stoppages!)
If I agree it's good then trot slowly up the line looking over your right
shoulder at the goal line and penalty area to observe for post-goal nastiness,
especially fights over the ball in the net. Watch the players!!!
If in your opinion it's not a good goal then stand there, at attention,
per USSF instructions. Raise the flag only if the goal-scorer was offside.
I'll look over at your and realize something is not right. You can motion
me over and tell me "Number 6 clearly impeded the keeper and prevented her from
getting to the ball" (or whatever it was). If I agree we'll cancel the goal and
restart for the defense. If I disagree we'll go with the goal and I'll keep the
defenders away from you. Donít be offended; it's not personal.
Now, if in your opinion it's not a good goal and I fail to make eye contact
(instead, I point and run directly to the center circle), then raise the flag
behind my back. Again, I hate flags behind my back, but I've violated my own
rule about making eye contact. Standing at attention won't do any good at that point.
So you need to get my attention. Shout if you have to. The other AR must
mirror the flag. ("Hey, dummy, look behind you.") But do not allow me to
restart the game if Iíve made some fundamental error thatís going to change the game.
Next, we know that ARs are now expected to become more involved in managing
the game than in years past, for example with fouls much closer to them, or
when the AR has a better line of sight than the referee whoís shielded by a
forest of bodies. Please help, but please also watch me since I tend to use
advantage more than most other referees. So early in the game, try to get a
feel for my style.
Now, if you're convinced that I would have called the foul had I seen it
then don't hesitate to raise the flag in the hand that indicates the direction
of the restart, and then give it a wiggle. And now comes one of your most important
duties Ė making me look good. :o)
Remember that if youíre calling a foul I did not see I wonít know what you saw.
And thatís the time the players are sure to ask ďWhatís the call, referee?Ē
I wonít know, but I canít let them know that I donít know.
So please, every time you call a foul, give me a little hand signal Ė
something very subtle (e.g., shirt pull, handling, push, etc.).
Remember, I may not have seen the foul, only your flag, and I have to sell the
call to the players! If you can help me avoid the deer-in-the-headlights stare
when the players ask me, "What was the call, referee?" I'd be most appreciative. :o)
So those are your two most important duties as AR: First is offside,
and second is keeping the referee out of trouble. And come to think of it maybe
the order of those should be reversed. :o)
Letís talk for a moment about penalty kicks. Please be cautious signaling for
any fouls in the penalty area that would result in a PK. Now understand that's not
saying the penalty area is exclusively mine Ė itís not. Weíre a team.
But I am supposed to be able to see what's in front of me, and I'll take responsibility
for that. I'll also protect you from irate defenders and coaches, so don't worry about them.
Just be certain before signaling for a PK. If you are convinced that I would
have called it had I seen it, then make eye contact and signal with a raised flag.
Then hold the flag horizontally below the waist to confirm to me that the foul was
inside the penalty area. After the whistle, go to the corner flag. (And donít forget
the subtle hand signal to tell me what you saw so I can sell the PK to the defense.)
And if I whistle for a direct free kick offense that occurs just at the edge
of the penalty area and I give you a look asking for help (inside or outside?), remember
to use the new signal if itís inside Ė the flag held horizontally below the waist --
and if itís outside then just stand there at attention and Iíll know.
(Maybe give me a subtle little motion with your left hand to show that the foul was outside the area.)
Now there are two exceptions for fouls in the penalty area -- times when you should
signal for a PK without any hesitation.
1) If a defender does his best Diego Maradona imitation by sticking his hand above
his head or away from his body (ďmakes himself biggerĒ) and unquestionably,
deliberately handles the ball, and if I'm the only person on the planet who did not see it,
then give the standard USSF signal for PK. Again, this is not something marginal.
This is clearly, unquestionably handling Ė a game-changing incident -- and you're
convinced I was screened or had a huge mental lapse.
2) If I've turned to run up the field and a defender clobbers an attacker behind
my back in the penalty area then you must raise the flag. Now that flag will be behind
my back (and flags behind the CR's back should be avoided whenever possible) but we're
talking a game-destroying incident if it's not dealt with promptly. So raise the flag,
and the other AR should be observant enough to see it and mirror.
("Hey ref, look behind you. There's a problem significant enough for me to flag and point past you.")
If I whistle for a PK then come around the corner and take your position off the
field at the intersection of the goal line and penalty area line. Be a goal judge
and watch for keeper movement forward from the goal line. If the goalkeeper moves
early and that movement makes a difference then show the new signal (flag held
horizontally below the waist). In my infinite wisdom (or lack thereof) I may
choose to ignore that signal from you. Again, do not be offended; it is not personal.
I'll watch for encroachment into the penalty area by the field players and any
issues with the kicker. If the ball rebounds from the keeper or goal back into the
field do not immediately try to rejoin play to judge offside. You'll get caught in
no-man's land and you're useless to me if that happens.
Instead, stay on the goal line and be a goal judge. I'll watch for offside.
Move out to the touchline only when it's safe -- when the play has cleared the
penalty area and the ball is going toward the other end of the field.
Now at PK incidents you also have one more opportunity to preserve the
integrity of the game even if it means mine is diminished. (Remember, I
said previously that my ego does not matter Ė only getting it right.)
If I whistle for a PK and show a defender a yellow card (caution) and youíre
absolutely convinced I was fooled by a dive, or that there was no contact,
or that the attacker fouled the defender, then do not move quickly toward the
corner flag. Instead, make eye contact, stand there, motion me over, and explain what you observed.
Youíll be telling me I was fooled and mistaken, and clearly the mistake Iíve
just described is a major error for the referee. Itís so significant that USSF
now says even if the error is corrected after consultation with the AR (i.e.,
no PK given, no caution, and restart with dropped ball) any assessment will be
considered a failure (maximum possible score 69 no matter the game is rated
competitive, difficult, or very difficult.).
So this is a very big deal if youíre absolutely certain.
But right is right, and integrity is everything.
And along those same lines of getting it right, remember that in 2009 we
received new instructions on dealing with one-hundred percent misconduct
(violent conduct) that has occurred out of the refereeís sight, even if
play has restarted. We can now go back and deal with the ďcrimeĒ after a
restart provided you have raised the flag and kept it up through the restart.
When I finally do see the flag the perp can be sent-off based on your information.
The restart following this ďdelayed justiceĒ will be based on whatever
reason the ball was out of play when the game was subsequently stopped,
not for the original misconduct.
So this is one of the times when you as the AR really need to be involved
and insist. But remember that this ďdelayed justiceĒ is not for everyday,
simple misconduct. Rather, itís reserved for the most egregious of misconduct Ė
something that simply must be dealt with. And it can only happen if you maintain
the flag until I stop the game. Failing that, the perp walks unpunished.
Manage the game as best you can when play is nearby. Handle encroachment on
free kicks close to you and on corner kicks. Come into the field if you need to.
But keep an eye on the attackers and read the game. They may want to take a quick
free kick, and if you're standing next to the wall 10 yards inside the field
when they put the ball into play then we all look bad when I have to blow the
whistle and hold the restart while you retreat to the touchline. So use common
sense here and try to stay at the touchline if you can.
Talk to the players when they're at the corner arc and you just know one player
is going to kick the other playerís ankles. ("Play the ball guys, not the ankles.")
If the player then kicks the ankles you nail him -- raise the flag. Talk to the players --
politely, respectfully, but we're in charge. They are not.
If they complain ("Hey, linesman, that was offside") don't be bothered.
Players will complain and disagree. They're allowed to disagree and vent a
little emotion. That's part of an emotional game. But theyíre not allowed to
dissent and disrespect you. You must decide when disagreement turns into dissent.
When you have had enough, call me over. But donít be overly sensitive.
Of course if they tell you to stick the flag where the sun doesn't shine
(or something equally colorful) then call me over. Anytime you call me over
it has to be for something that you could not manage yourself. So you must be
prepared to tell me, "White number 6 spit at blue number 12," or whatever.
Do not call me over to say that green number 5 is complaining about offside.
I don't care about that and you should not be over-reacting to that sort of stuff.
So listen and hear what needs to be heard and ignore what can be ignored.
Stay calm and in control.
Work the same way with the coaches, substitutes, and spectators. They're
allowed to disagree as long as they don't get out of line or become disruptive
to the game, or interfere with your running on the line. So try to manage things
as best you can -- politely but firmly. If you've tried but cannot deal with
elements outside the touchlines, then call me over. I will take out the trash!
If you see something on or off the field involving players or substitutes
or substituted players that in your opinion needs a caution or send-off then
in addition to raising your flag to get my attention please give me a subtle,
private signal. To recommend a caution put a hand over your badge. For a send-off
you can touch your back pocket. If I see either of those signals Iíll know you
need to speak with me. Be prepared with jersey numbers and specifics.
All other mechanics are to standard USSF teachings (for corner kicks,
throw-ins, goal kicks, substitutions, etc.). Just follow what you were taught
and you'll be fine.
When checking-in the players be certain that the jersey number on the
lineup is the same as the number on the shirt. And please look at the
photos on the player passes! Does the person standing in front of you
bear any resemblance to the photo? If not, hold the pass and show it to me.
Do not return it to the player or coach.
One last thing Iíd like you to remember. I'm not picky about the exact
blade of grass for free kicks far from goal, for offside restarts, etc.
If the player is close, let her play. Show the player where to take the
throw-in, and if she gets quite close let it go. But if she ignores your
direction and goes 10 yards away after you pointed to the proper spot, then raise the flag.
In the same vein, I don't care if the ball is placed a few inches
outside the goal area for a goal kick when the nearest opponent is 40 yards away.
Who cares? Certainly not the opponents. Please don't raise the flag and motion
with your hand to tell me that the ball has to go back a few inches after it's been kicked into play!
Or if the keeper is punting the ball and reaches barely a few inches outside
the penalty area just before kicking (clearly handling outside the area)
don't raise the flag if the nearest opponent is many yards away. Who cares?
Itís utterly trifling, so let them play.
Be proactive and give a shout. "Keeper, watch your lines when youíre punting the ball."
Then if the keeper persists we have the option to act after we've provided a reasonable warning.
On the other hand, if the keeper comes out to challenge and handles
outside the area thereby preventing the opponent an opportunity to play
the ball, then of course you flag it. That handling is unfair.
But let's not micro-manage trivial offenses that don't matter in the long run.
Let inconsequential stuff go. Being technically correct when itís not
necessary only causes preventable irritation for the players, coaches, and spectators.
Finally, letís discuss what to do if there is a fight, a mass-confrontation,
or other incident bordering on or actually turning to bedlam. If things seem at
a level where I can control things and settle the situation on my own then stay
on the touch lines and observe. AR1 should move quickly to the bench area and do
everything possible to prevent escalation of the situation by anyone coming into
the field from that touch line. AR2 should observe, take numbers, and do whatever
is reasonably possible to prevent any spectators from entering the field from
that touch line.
If things seem to be spinning out of control (for example a mass-confrontation
or full-blown fight) then come into the field and letís set up the USSF
ďTriangle of Control.Ē Get close enough to do what you reasonably can to
calm the situation, but donít get into the middle of things, and certainly
not so close that you might get hit.
Letís not all focus on the same hot spot. Do observe and make mental
or written notes as the situation allows. And look for ways to prevent
other players from joining in as they can easily turn a manageable situation into chaos.
Once things settle down we can get together to compare notes and deal
with players, coaches, substitutes, substituted players, spectators, etc.
as circumstances require. Above all, remain calm and observant.
And if you see anyone getting behind my back give me a really loud warning shout.
Now, any questions on things I covered, or are there things I did not cover that youíd like to discuss?
OK, let's pluck this turkey. :o)
Gil Weber is a National Emeritus Referee, State Assessor. Referee Instructor,
and Assignor. He was also a contributor to the USSF's Advice to Referee (first 11 editions),
Laws of the Game Made Easy, the Guide for Fourth Officials, the Women's World Cup '99
Fouls and Misconduct video, You Make the Call, and other Federation referee educational programs.